RESEARCH

Penelitian-penelitian dan Artikel PMRI

1. Sutarto Hadi, PMRI: Menjadikan Pelajaran Matematika Lebih Bermakna Bagi Siswa;  FKIP, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin ; E-mail: sutarto_hadi@yahoo.com

Pendidikan Matematika Realistik (PMR) dikembangkan berdasarkan pemikiran Hans Freudenthal yang berpendapat bahwa matematika merupakan aktivitas insani (human activities) dan harus dikaitkan dengan realitas. Berdasarkan pemikiran tersebut, PMR mempunyai ciri antara lain, bahwa dalam proses pembelajaran siswa harus diberikan kesempatan untuk menemukan kembali (to reinvent) matematika melalui bimbingan guru (Gravemeijer, 1994), dan bahwa penemuan kembali (reinvention) ide dan konsep matematika tersebut harus dimulai dari penjelajahan berbagai situasi dan persoalan “dunia riil” (de Lange, 1995).
Dunia riil adalah segala sesuatu di luar matematika. Ia bisa berupa mata pelajaran lain selain matematika, atau bidang ilmu yang berbeda dengan matematika, ataupun kehidupan sehari-hari dan lingkungan sekitar kita (Blum & Niss, 1989). Dunia riil diperlukan untuk mengembangkan situasi kontekstual dalam menyusun materi kurikulum. Materi kurikulum yang berisi rangkaian soal-soal kontekstual akan membantu proses pembelajaran yang bermakna bagi siswa. Dalam PMR, proses belajar mempunyai peranan penting. Rute belajar (learning route) di mana siswa mampu menemukan sendiri konsep dan ide matematika, harus dipetakan (Gravemeijer, 1997). Sebagai konsekuensinya, guru harus mampu mengembangkan pengajaran yang interaktif dan memberikan kesempatan kepada siswa untuk memberikan kontribusi terhadap proses belajar mereka.
Pada saat ini, PMR mendapat perhatian dari berbagai pihak, seperti guru dan siswa, orangtua, dosen LPTK (teacher educators), dan pemerintah. Beberapa sekolah dasar di Yogyakarta, Bandung dan Surabaya telah melakukan ujicoba dan implementasi PMR dalam skala terbatas. Sebelum PMR diimplementasikan secara luas di Indonesia, perlu pemahaman yang memadai tentang teori ‘baru’ tersebut. Seringkali kegagalan dalam inovasi pendidikan bukan disebabkan karena inovasi itu jelek, tapi karena kita tidak memahaminya secara benar. Makalah ini akan menguraikan secara garis besar tentang sejarah PMR, mengapa kita perlu mengembangkan PMR di Indonesia, konsepsi tentang siswa, peran guru, konsepsi tentang pengajaran, dan ditutup dengan harapan terhadap implementasi PMR di Indonesia.

Sumber : http:// www.pmri.or.id.

2. Fauzan, Ahmad (2002).  Applying realistic mathematics education (RME) in teaching geometry in Indonesian primary schools. thesis.

Abstract:

Similar to other countries (see for example Niss, 1996; NCTM, 2000), the mathematics curriculum for primary schools in Indonesia pays much attention to several important aspects such as developing pupils’ reasoning, activity, creativity and attitude, and providing pupils with mathematics skills so that they can handle real-world problems mathematically. These aspects are crystallised in the goals of the mathematics curriculum for Indonesian primary schools as follows: “Preparing the pupils to be able to deal with the dynamic world situation effectively and efficiently through practical works based on logical reasoning, rational and critical thinking, caution and honesty”. Preparing pupils to be able to use mathematics and mathematical reasoning in their everyday life and in studying other sciences. Despite its lofty goals, the curriculum appears to have fallen short of its aims, giving rise to the following questions: Why is the quality of mathematics education in Indonesian primary schools still poor? Why do most pupils hate to learn mathematics? (see Marpaung, 1995, 2001), and Why pupils’ achievements in mathematics are poor from year to year? (see http://www.depdiknas.co.id). These questions indicate that there are some problems in mathematics education in Indonesia, especially regarding the curriculum and the learning and teaching process in primary school.

3.Zulkardi, Z. (2002) .Developing a learning environment on realistic mathematics education for Indonesian student teachers. thesis.

Abstract.

This paper deals with the design and evaluation of a ‘rich’ learning environment (LE) for assisting student teachers in Indonesia learning and teaching realistic mathematics education (RME), a Dutch mathematics education approach. The LE can be rich in the sense that: (1) it has of two main environments i.e. a web site and a face-to-face course; (2) it uses various of tools such as Java applet simulation programs, online communication and video clips (the web) as well as a full video as well (the course); and (3) it provides student teachers experiences in teaching practice in the secondary school classroom environment. Using development research approach, three prototypes of LE have been developed in Holland and evaluated mainly in Indonesia. However, in this paper is only focused on the results of the third prototype of the LE. Results suggest that the LE program potentially effective in assisting student teachers understanding RME and in improving their performance in teaching mathematics using realistic approach in the schools.

4. Domesia Novi Handayani, 2008, The early Development of Number Sense with the Support of Structuring : A Design Research on Number Sense (Mengembangkan Kemampuan berhitung sebagai Bagian Proses Menumbuhkan Kepekaan Bilangan pada Anak). Thesis

Abstract:

This research will be conducted as an effort to answer a need of a grounded and local instructional theory on guiding the development of number sense with the support of structuring for the young children at the age 6-7 years old in Indonesia. Therefore, it is aimed at explaining children’s thinking process and achievement in exploring structure in the relation on how they perceive numbers; and supporting children’s number sense growing process by engaging their ability on structuring. This research is a design research from the perspective of mathematics education and will investigate the support of structure to develop the number sense. Thus, the phases in the design research-preparation and design phase, teaching experiment phase, and retrospective analysis phase – are followed. The preparation and design phase has been done and has resulted a conjectures of student’s thinking process. This research will not only focus on the individual construction, but also the process of acculturation into mathematical practice of wider society and intend to account for individual children’s learning in the classroom by analyzing conceptual reorganizations they made while interacting with teacher and their peers. Thus, the observation in mathematics norms. The result of this research should be a series of classroom activity that may stimulate children’s development of number sense with the support of structuring.

 

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